A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of an artery in the lungs that can be life-threatening. Symptoms of a pulmonary embolism can include chest pain, shortness of breath, a rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. Diagnosis is usually based on a physical examination, an imaging test, and a blood test. Treatment typically involves giving anticoagulants to prevent further clotting, and in some cases, a procedure to remove the clot.
An aortic aneurysm is an abnormal enlargement or bulging of the aorta, which is the main artery of the body. Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta, but most commonly occur in the abdominal aorta. Symptoms of an aortic aneurysm include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating feeling in the abdomen, fatigue, and sweating. Diagnosis of an aortic aneurysm can be made through imaging tests such as CT scans, ultrasound, or MRI. Treatment for aortic aneurysms may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the size and location of the aneurysm.
Cardiomyopathy is a condition that affects the heart muscle, making it difficult for it to pump blood efficiently. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heartbeats. Diagnosis is typically made through physical exams, electrocardiograms, X-rays, and echocardiograms. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of cardiomyopathy, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, cardiac assistive devices, and surgery. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as exercising regularly, avoiding alcohol and tobacco, and following a healthy diet can also help to improve the symptoms and management of cardiomyopathy.
Arrhythmia and Dysrhythmia are abnormal heart rhythms that can occur in the heart. Symptoms of arrhythmia and dysrhythmia can include: palpitations, chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, and fainting. Diagnosis of these conditions is typically done through an ECG or Holter monitor test. Treatment of arrhythmia and dysrhythmia depends on the type and severity, but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or even surgery. In some cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart rate.
Heart failure is a medical condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump blood effectively throughout the body. Symptoms of heart failure can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the lower legs and feet. Diagnosis of heart failure is made by a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging tests. Treatment of heart failure can include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery. Lifestyle changes may include dietary modifications, reducing salt intake, and exercise. Medications may include diuretics, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, and others. Surgery may include coronary artery bypass grafting, ventricular assist devices, and heart transplantation.
Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, is a serious medical condition that results from the obstruction of blood flow to the heart muscle. Symptoms of a heart attack can include chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, sweating and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, electrocardiogram, and blood tests. Treatment for a heart attack can include medications, lifestyle modification, and surgery. Medications can include aspirin, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors. Lifestyle modifications may include quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Surgery may involve cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, or bypass surgery.
Angina pectoris is a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. Symptoms of angina pectoris include a squeezing sensation in the chest, a feeling of heaviness, tightness, or pressure in the chest, pain that spreads to the arms, neck, or jaw, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis of angina pectoris is usually done through medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and stress testing. Treatment for angina pectoris can include lifestyle changes, medications such as nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers, or surgical procedures such as coronary angiography or angioplasty. In some cases, angina pectoris can be prevented with lifestyle changes and medications.
Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a condition in which the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries is higher than normal. Symptoms of hypertension can include headaches, dizziness, and vision problems. Diagnosis of hypertension is typically through a physical exam and checking a person's blood pressure levels. Treatment of hypertension often involves lifestyle changes, such as reducing sodium intake, increasing physical activity, and managing stress. Medications may also be prescribed to help reduce blood pressure.
Atherosclerosis is a condition where the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to a buildup of fatty substances and other materials. It is a common form of cardiovascular disease and can lead to a variety of health complications, including heart attack and stroke. Symptoms of atherosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically done through imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment involves lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly, as well as medications to lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to open up blocked arteries.
Cardiovascular diseases are a wide range of conditions that affect the heart and/or blood vessels. The top 10 cardiovascular diseases are coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart defects, arrhythmia, and valvular heart disease. Coronary artery disease is a condition in which plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart. Stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain, which can cause permanent damage. Peripheral artery disease is a narrowing of the arteries that leads to reduced blood flow in the arms and legs. Hypertension is high blood pressure and can lead to stroke, heart attack, and other complications. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rhythm that can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other heart-related complications. Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure. Congenital heart defects are problems with the heart’s structure that are present at birth. Arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm that can cause dizziness, fainting, and chest pain. Valvular heart disease is a condition in which one or more of the heart’s four valves don’t work correctly.