Mitral stenosis is a condition in which the mitral valve in the heart does not open properly, resulting in decreased blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Symptoms include shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling of the legs. Diagnosis is made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other tests. Treatment involves medications to reduce symptoms and a procedure called balloon valvuloplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure that opens the valve and increases blood flow. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to replace the valve. With proper treatment, many people with mitral stenosis can lead full and active lives.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a disorder of the heart’s mitral valve, which is located between the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. MVP occurs when the valve’s leaflets do not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the heart’s upper chamber. Symptoms of MVP can include shortness of breath, palpitations, fatigue, chest pain and dizziness. Diagnosis of MVP is usually done through an echocardiogram. Treatment of MVP is often not necessary and may include lifestyle modifications and medications. In more severe cases, surgery may be recommended to repair or replace the valve.