Mitral stenosis is a condition in which the mitral valve in the heart does not open properly, resulting in decreased blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Symptoms include shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and swelling of the legs. Diagnosis is made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other tests. Treatment involves medications to reduce symptoms and a procedure called balloon valvuloplasty, which is a minimally invasive procedure that opens the valve and increases blood flow. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to replace the valve. With proper treatment, many people with mitral stenosis can lead full and active lives.
Mitral valve regurgitation is a heart condition in which the one-way valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart fails and is unable to keep blood flowing in the correct direction. Symptoms of mitral valve regurgitation can include shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, and swelling of the legs and abdomen. Diagnosis is made with an echocardiogram, a type of ultrasound that creates pictures of the heart. Treatment of mitral valve regurgitation can include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery. Surgery may involve repairing the existing valve or replacing it with an artificial valve.